Your IBM Computer, Feb-1985
by Lloyd Borrett
Your Computer, February 1985
This month I'm coming good with all the tantalising news
I promised you in my Your IBM Computer,
January 1985 column.
The Data General/One uses Sony
microfloppies; that could be a problem
if IBM goes for the smaller Hitachi units.
First, Data General has finally released the Data
General/One Personal Computer in the US. This is the first
complete, truly portable, personal computer and it's as IBM
compatible as DG could make it. 1-2-3, Symphony, Wordstar,
and dBase II are already available for the Data General/One,
and I expect most other programs will run on it.
This box is exciting. A ten-pound (4.5 kg) computer with
a CMOS 80088 chip, 512K of memory, an 80-column by 25-line
LCD display with 640 by 256 pixel graphics, two 720K
double-density 9 cm diskette drives built in, and it runs
off batteries for eight to ten hours of normal use. Yes,
that's a true portable.
A portable 1.8 kg printer of near letter quality is also
available. It prints graphics and characters in a number of
fonts at speeds of 20 to 40 characters per second. It can
use normal and thermal sensitive paper. There is also a 13
cm floppy drive available as a stand-alone unit, which
enables the Data General/One to use existing PC programs and
to share data with other PCs.
While the Data General/One will fit the bill for many
people on the move, it should not be seen as an alternative
to the PC or PC-XT. LCD screens take some getting used to.
They reflect a lot of glare, and strain the eyes more than
normal displays. For occasional use by someone on the move
that's acceptable, but I wouldn't want to be using one day
in, day out, for extended periods.
An expansion chassis will be available sometime in 1985,
at which time I expect someone will put a half-height hard
disk in it and a display adapter. Then the user should have
the best of both worlds; fast data storage and a high
quality display in the normal work place, and a true
portable for working on the move.
A few words of caution. It's strongly rumoured that IBM
is going to release a similar portable in 1985, and that IBM
will use the Hitachi-Maxell-designed 7.6 cm diskette drives.
If that happens it could spell big trouble for Data General,
Hewlett-Packard, and other systems using the Sony 9 cm
Tape Back-up For Hard Disks
Currently, users of personal computers with hard disk
storage have to back up their data using floppy disks. The
integrity of floppy disks has always been questionable. Not
only are they fragile, but the operator has to use up to 30
floppy disks in the correct sequence, with the whole
procedure taking hours. The result is that back-ups are not
adequately carried out by most users.
Since the introduction
of hard-disk-based personal computers I've been evaluating
alternative back-up options. Streaming tape units always
seemed to be the best alternative, offering ease of use,
security, speed, and the benefits of rigid packaging, but
none of the units I evaluated lived up to that promise.
Either the hardware, or more often the software, let them
Finally I've found one that works. It's the Sigma
Design Streaming Tape Unit, which stores 45M on a DC300 data cartridge and 60M on a DC600 data cartridge, and can
create a tape image of an IBM PC-XT 10M hard disk in under
five minutes. Alternatively, the unit can back up in file
mode, which allows individual files to be recovered later.
In a 'worst case' test, a full 10M hard disk with some 700
fragmented files took just under one hour to back up in file
Most importantly, it works. I tried it out attached to
an IBM Portable PC with 256K, an IBM PC-XT with an AST
Research SixPakPlus, an IBM PC-XT with a Sigma Design
Maximiser, and an IBM PC with the IBM expansion unit and all
sorts of other bits and pieces. The Sigma Design streaming
tape unit worked perfectly in every case, regardless of the
fancy software and hardware options in use.
driving the tape unit offers all the essential features
that many leave out. Files and directories, or directories
and all sub-directories can be easily backed up. A parameter
file can be built and passed to the back-up program. I was
impressed with the way the software provided the features
and yet stayed quite easy to use.
Sigma Design offers
separate controller cards to mount inside the PC-XTs or
compatibles, which allows easy sharing of the tape unit
between a number of computers. Alternatively, half-height
ten, 20 or 32M hard disk drives can be mounted in the
external subsystem along with the streaming tape drive. This
provides an alternative to the Tallgrass units often used to
expand the IBM PC.
The only failing of the Sigma Design unit
is the documentation. What's there is good, but there are
some important omissions. For example, the software is more
recent than the manual, and a number of important options
are not documented. Thankfully, the software is easy to use
and fairly self-explanatory.
Installing an option such as
this can be difficult if the hardware or software interrupts
conflict with existing options. There was no documentation
to explain the nature of these problems or the way to
overcome them. I tested many variations and had no
problems, but if I had had difficulty there would have been
nothing in reserve to call upon. That's what complete
documentation is for.
What's it cost? The streaming tape
drive in an external subsystem with its own power supply
retails for $3,300 including tax. The additional,
short-length, streaming tape controller cards are $675 each.
If only I didn't have to hand the evaluation unit back.
The IBM PC-AT First Impressions
As I write this, the IBM
PC-AT has not yet been announced by IBM Australia. Computerland has a warehouse full of ATs in Sydney, which it
isn't allowed to sell. No IBM dealer has any, but a few
non-IBM dealers do. I've had one for a week and experienced
no problems so far.
First impressions? What the hell is that
nine-pin connector for? Turns out to be a serial port! Open
up the case. Oh! I thought there was a half-height 20M fixed
disk - turns out to be a full-height. There is space for a
second full-height hard disk, but only for one half-height
floppy disk. The half-height 360K floppy drive hasn't
arrived yet. When it does I'll try to find a third-party
half-height 20M fixed disk to go in the remaining space.
far I haven't been able to find an Australian source for the
1.2M floppies required. Existing 360K diskettes can be read
in the new 1.2M drives. It's also possible to write to the
360K diskettes with the 1.2M drive, but then they can no
longer be read in 360K drives.
The machine has eight slots,
all full length. Two of the slots do not use the new bus,
and the colour graphics board can only be installed in these
slots. This is the 'extended' version with 512K on the
motherboard, a 20M fixed disk, and a 1.2M floppy disk. One
controller card is used to support all the disk drives, and
there is also a new serial and parallel port card (the one
with the nine-pin connector).
The 512K on the motherboard is in 'base' memory. A
special 128K board can be purchased to fully expand 'base'
memory to 640K - the same as the PC and PC-XT. Any other
memory boards are installed as 'extended' memory above the 1
M address limit of the 8088 chip in the PC and PC-XT. When
PC-DOS 3.0 runs on the PC-AT with its 80286 chip, the
'extended' memory can be used for RAM disk using the VDISK
device driver IBM supplies.
PC-DOS 3.0 actually knows about Australia! There is a
COUNTRY option in the CONFIG.SYS file, which is used to set
the date format required. Australia is one of the countries
supported. If you don't like what you get, it's tough luck.
The manual doesn't give examples of the various date formats
available, and it's rather tedious to try them all out.
The only problem encountered so far, is with the new
PRINT command. It allows a print buffer with a default size
of 512 bytes to be set up. That's right, 'bytes'. The manual
doesn't mention an upper limit, but I soon found it has one;
I usually set up a printer buffer of 64K, but the maximum
allowed by PRINT is 16K, or 16384 little bytes.
This machine is fast. The only benchmark done so far was
a Lotus 1-2-3 worksheet that takes 300 seconds to
recalculate on the PC-XT. The PC-AT knocks it over in 110
When the 360K diskette and additional 512K of memory
arrive, the AT goes on my desk. Someone else can use my old,
much extended, IBM PC.
Saturday, 15 October 2011